נשים הריון ולידה גברים ילדים ונוער גיל הזהב שיניים רפואה-כללי
ספורט וכושר רפואה ומשפט דיאטה ותזונה מין וזוגיות רפואה משלימה

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??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? - ??????? ?????????? - ???? ?÷?÷ ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????, ??÷???? ????? ???÷?? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???????.

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???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ????÷? ?"? ???????? ????? ???????.

????

???????? (Protein) ??÷???? ???? ???????? ???? ????, ?????? ????? ?÷?? ???? ??÷??? ?????, ????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ?? ??? ??????? ????. ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? (Amino Acids), ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???. ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? (???? ?"?) ??? ?????. ???? ???? ??"? ???? ?? ?????, ????? ????? ???? ??-?? ????, ???? ?"? ???????, ??????? ?? ???????. ?????? ??????? ???? ?÷??? ???? ??-?? ???? ???????? ???? [????? ???÷? ??????? (RDA, 1989)]: ÷????? 9 ?"? ??????? ???????? ?-11 ????? ???????, ?? ???? ?÷?÷ ??? ?-20 ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ????÷??? ??÷??. ????? "???????" ????? ?? ?? ??-9 ???????? ??÷???? ?????? ????, ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????, ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??"? ????????.

???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????, ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ???÷? ?? ?? ??"? ???????? (????? ??????, 1992).

????? ??????

???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ???? (?÷?, ???, ????) (??). ?? ???? ?????? ???÷??? ????, ????? ??? ???÷??? ??????, ????? ????. ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???÷? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? - ?????? ????? ??"?- ????? ???????? ????.

??÷???? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??"? ???????? ????: ???? ????? ???? ??"? ?????? ???? ???, ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? (??). ?? ???, ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????.

?????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???÷? ?? ????? ??÷???? ??????, ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????, ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????! ????: ????? ?÷????? (????, ?????, ??????) ??? ??÷?? ???? ???? ?? ?????; ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?÷????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? (??'???). ???? ???? ?? ????? ?÷????? ??????? ?? ??????, ?÷???, ????? ?? ?????? - ???? ????? ?? ?????. ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????÷?? ??-??? ?????? ?? ???????? - ??÷?? ?? ???? ?????? ??????. ???? ????? ????? ????÷? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?÷????? - "??????" ????? ?÷?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????.

???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???÷?

???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?? 0.8 ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ÷?????? ??÷? ??? ???? [????? ???÷? ??????? (RDA, 1989)]. ????? ???÷? ?? ????? (?????? ???? ?????? ???????) ?????? ??????? ?????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????. ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? (??? ?? ??÷?? ???? ?? ?????) ????? ?? ????? ??÷?, ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??-?? ???? ???÷? ?????. ??? ??, ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??-?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????, ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? (????? ??????, 1992). ?????? ?? ???? ???÷? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?÷??? ???? ??÷?? ?? ???? ?????. ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???÷? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??????, ?????, ???? ???? ????? ??÷??. ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??÷?, ???? ???÷? ?????? ???? ????, ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? (????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????, ????÷? ???? ?????). ??? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????, ?? ?÷?? ????÷?? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ?????, ???? ????? ??÷?? ????? (???? ??÷? ???? ???? ????), ????? - ???? ???????? ???? ????? ?????. ??? ?÷?? ????? ????? ???? ??÷?? ?????.

?? ??, ?? ??? ???÷?? ?? ???? ??÷?, ????? ???÷? ??????? (RDA, 1989) ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???÷? ??-?? ???, ??????:

  • ?????÷?? - 2.2 ??? ????? ???? ??? ÷?????? ??÷? ???.

????? ?? ????? ??????:

  • ?????? 10-7 - ??? ??? ???? ??? ÷"? ??÷? ???.
  • ???? 19 ????? - 0.8 ??? ????.

?????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???÷ ??????? ?????? ÷??. ????? ???, ??? ????? ?????? ÷?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????, ?÷?÷ ?- 1.2-2 ??' ????? ??? ÷"? ??÷? ??? ????, ??? ????? ???? ??÷?? ????? (??÷????, 1989). ?? ???? ?????? ????? (???? ?÷?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????), ????? ????? ????? ??÷?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??-RDA? ?-1.2 ??? ??? ÷"? ??÷? ??? ???? (??????, 1999).

????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????

?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? (????, 1998). ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??÷?? ??????. ???? ?????? (1980) ???? ??????? ??? 10.4% ???? ?÷???? ????? ?????? ?? ???, ???? ??????? ?? ????÷?? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????. ???? ???? ????÷?? ?? ???? ????, ?? ?? ????? ??????? ?????, ????? ?????? ???? ???? 4.4%. ???÷? ??? ???÷? 16 ?????? ??? 17-21 (??????? ???', 1997). ?? ????÷?? ???? ???? ÷?????? ???, ?? ÷???? ??? ÷???? 1.5 ??? ????? ??? ÷"? ??÷? ??? ???? ??????? 2.5 ?' ????? ????? ???????. ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?÷?????. ????? - ?????? ??????? ???÷?, ????? ?? 1.5 ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ??????. ?? ????? ??????? ????-?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ?? 1.2-1.7 ??? ??????? ???? ??? ÷"? ??÷? ??? (????????, 1995).

????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???

?????? ??? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???, ??????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??????. ?? ????? ?? ?? ????÷, ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??÷?? ????? (??????? ???', 1994; ????????÷? ???', 1988, 1990).

???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??÷?? ????? ????? ???? ??????:

  • ?????? ??????.
  • ?????? ??????.
  • ????? ??????? ?????.

????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? (???? ???? ????) ???? ?????? ??????, ?? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? (??????? ???', 1974). ???? ?????? ???????? ????? 1.6 ??? ????? ?÷"? ??÷? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??÷?? ?????, ?????? 5 ??? ??????? ??????? ????÷ ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????÷?? ????? ??÷?? ?????. ???÷? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??÷÷? ?-0.9 ??? ????? ???? ??? ÷"? ??÷? ??? ????, ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???÷÷? ????? ?? ????? (????????÷? ???', 1988).

???????? ????÷?? ?????? ??? ?÷?÷?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????, ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? (???? ?????? ?????). ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????, ???? ???? ??? ???, ??÷÷? ?-1.6 ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??÷?? ????? (?????? ???', 1988). ???÷??? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????÷?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????????.

?? ??, ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????.

??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??÷?? ????? ????, ?? ?????? ?????, ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?????, ??? ????? ?????? ?÷?? ???? ????? ??÷? ???÷ ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? 1.4 ??? ????? ??? ÷"? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ????? 0.9 ??? ????, ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?-2.4 ???, ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? (????????÷? ???', 1992). ??????, ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????? ????, ?? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????.

???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? (????? ?? ?? ???? ??????), ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????: '?? ??? ????? ???÷ ??????? ?????? ?÷?÷ ?-0.8 ???, ????????? ?÷?÷ ????? ?????, ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????'. ????? ??? ????? ??÷??? ?????? ?????, ?? ??? ????. ?????? ????, ??? ??? ???? ??????, ???÷? 20%-15 ??????? ?÷????? ?????? ?????? (?????-???????, 1996 ????? ??????, 1992; ????? ???÷? ???????, 1989). ??? ????? (???? ?? ?? ???? ??????), ?? 20, ???÷?? 72 ÷"?, ????? ?-2900 ÷÷"? ???? (????? ???÷? ???????, 1989). ????? ???? ???? ??? 15% ????? ÷?????? ?÷??? ??????, ??? ?????? ???÷? 435 ÷÷"? ??????. ?? ??? ????? ???÷ 4 ÷÷"?, ???? ??????? ?????? ????? 109 ?' ?????. ???÷? ???? ?? ???÷? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? 1.5 ??? ????? ??? ÷"? ??? ????! ?? ??? ????÷ ??????? ??????, ??÷? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????, ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???÷? ??????. ??????: ?????? ?????? ???????? ?-800 ÷÷"? ????, ??? ?? ?? ?????? ???÷ ?÷ 13% ??÷?????? (481 ÷÷"? ?-120 ??? ?????), ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? 1.7 ??? ??? ÷"? ???, ????? ??????? ????-?????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ?? ??, ????? ????? ????? ?? 12%-15% ??????? ?÷????? ?????? (????????, 1995). ?? ????????? ????÷?? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???÷?? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????.

??? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????: ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???÷? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????, ÷? ????? ?? ?? ???÷?? ?? ??????? ??????.

?????? ??? ???? ???? ?-15% ??????? ?÷????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ÷"? ??÷? ???. ??? ??÷?? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????, ????÷?? ????? ???????? ÷?????? ???? ???????.

?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?÷???? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? - ???? ????? ???, ????? ??÷???? ????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ????? ??????.

?????

?????? ?????? "?? ????? ??? ?? ?????" ???? ??????? ??????. ????? ?????? ??????? ???÷? ?? ????? ???????? ??????. ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????, ?? ??? ???÷? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ÷????? ????? ????. ???? ÷???? ????? ???? ????? ??÷?? ?????. ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???÷ ??-??? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? [?÷? ????? ???????? ??? ???? (??? ???', 1997)] ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? (????? ???÷? ???????, 1989).

????? ?÷????

  1. ?????-???????, ?. (1996). ????? ??? ?????. ??????????? ??????.
  2. Blackburn, G.L. (1989). In Search of the Preferred Fuel.
       Nutr. Clin. Prac. 4, 3.
  3. Gontzea, I.P. et al. (1974). The Influence of Muscular
       Activity on the Nitrogen Balance and on the Need of Man for
       Proteins. Nutr. Rep. Int. 10,35-43.
  4. Granzon, H., Forsum, E. (1985). Effect of Reduced Energy
       Intake Versus Uncreased Physical Activity on the Outcome
       of Nitrogen Balance Experiments in Men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
       41, 919-928.
  5. Kleiner, S.M. et al. (1994). Nutritional Status of Nationally
       Ranked Elite Bodybuilders. Int. J. Sport Nut. 4, 54-69.
  6. Lemon, P.W.R. (1998). Effects of Exercise on Dietary
       Protein Requirements. Int. J. Sport Nut. 8, 426-447.
  7. Lemon, P.W.R., Mullin, J.P. (1980). Effect of Initial Muscle
       Glycogen Levels on Protein Catabolism During Exercise. J.
       App
    . Physiol. 48,624-629.
  8. Mahan, L.K., Arlin, M. (1992). Food, Nutrition and diet
       Therapy
    . W.B. Saunders Philadelphia.
  9. National Research Council. (1989). Recommended Dietary
       Allowances
    . National Academy Press. Washington.

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